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DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR U 8. GEOLOGICAL AND GEOGRAPHICAL SURVEY OF THE TERRITORIES

F. V. HAYDEN, GEOLOGIST-DJ-CHABQE

MISCELLANEOUS PUBLICATIONS— No. 12

HISTORY

OF

NORTH ^ ME RIO A. 1ST

PINNIPEDS

A MONOGRAPH OF THE

WALRUSES, SEA-LIONS, SEA-BEARS

AND

SEALS

OF

NORTH AMERICA.

BY JOEL ASAPH ALLEN

Assistant in the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Cambridge Special Collaborator of the Survey

WASHINGTON GOVERNMENT FEINTING OFFICE

1880

PREFATORY NOTE.

UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL AND GEOGRAPHICAL SURVEY OF THE TERRITORIES,

Washington, D. (7., July 1, 1880.

The present series of monographs of the 'North American Pinnipedia, by Mr. J. A. Allen, may be considered as a second installment of the systematic History of North American Mam- mals, of which the Fur-Bearing- Animals by Dr. Elliott Cones, U. S. A., forming No. 8 of the Miscellaneous Publications of the Survey, was published as a specimen fasciculus. The first monograph of this series, treating of the Walruses, was prepared nearly three years since for publication in the Bulletin of the Survey, but before it was quite ready for the press, Dr. Coues, owing to his pressing engagements in other directions, invited Mr. Allen to extend his treatise to embrace the entire suborder of the Pinnipeds, to which he had already given special atten- tion, with a view to its incorporation as a part of the proposed general History of North American Mammals. Since, how- ever, considerable time must elapse before the whole work can be completed, it has been thought best not to delay the publi- cation of the part already prepared relating to the Pennipeds.

As nearly all of the species belonging to this group found in the northern hemisphere are members of the North American fauna, the present treatise is virtually a monograph of all the species occurring north of the equator, and includes incideutally a revision of those of other seas. The literature of the whole group is not only reviewed at length, but the economic pha.se of the subject is treated in detail, embracing, in fact, a general history of the Sealing industries of the world. The technical treatment of the subject is based rnainjy on the rich material of the National Museum, supplemented at many important points by that of the Museum of Comparative Zoology of Cam- bridge, which, through the kindness of the directors of these institutions, was generously placed at the author's disposal. That contained in the other principal museums of the country

in

IV PREFATORY NOTE.

was also examined, so that so far as the species of the northern hemisphere is concerned the amount of material consulted doubtless far exceeds that ever before studied by any single investigator of the group. For the biographical part, to which much space has been allotted, matter has been freely gathered from all available sources. In addition to the results here first published, the work may be considered as a compendium of our present knowledge of the subject.

In regard to the need of a work like the present, it may be stated that with the exception of Dr. Theodore Gill's important "Prodrome" of a proposed monograph of North American Pinnipeds, published in 1866, there has been no general treat- ment of the species since the excellent compilations of Drs. Harlan and Godman appeared, now more than half a century ago. Respecting foreign works, nothing has been recently published covering the ground here taken beyond a very gen- eral synopsis of the technical phases of the subject. The best accounts of the species occurring along the shores of Europe are in other languages than English, while no general history of the economic relations of the subject exists. In relation to the important Fur Seal Fisheries of Alaska, the author has been able to present in extenso the results of Captain Charles Bryant's long experience at the Fur Seal Islands, where for nearly ten years he was the government agent in charge of the islands. Although not received until the article on this species had been transmitted to the printer, it proves to be, to only a small degree, a repetition of the account given by Mr. Elliott, also reproduced at length. The history Captain Bryant gives of the changes in the numbers and relations of the different classes of these animals at the rookeries, under the present system of management of the Fur Seal business, forms a valu- able basis for generalization in regard to the future regulation of this industry, and is also an important contribution to the life-history of the species.

The cuts, some thirty in number, illustrating the cranial char- acters of the Walruses, were drawn for the present work by Mr. J. H. Blake, of Cambridge, and engraved by Messrs. Eussell and Richardson, of Boston. The Survey is indebted to Professor Baird, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, for a series of six- teen original figures, engraved by Mr. H. H. Nichols, of Washing- ton, from photographs on wood, illustrating the sknlls of CallorU- nus ursinus, Peale's "Halwhcerwcmtarcticus," Cystopliora cristata,

PREFATORY NOTE. V

and Macrorhinus angustirostris ; also to the Zoological Society of London for electros of Gray's "Halicyon richardsi," and of a series of historic figures of the walrus published in the Society's "Proceedings," by the late Dr. Gray, and to the proprietors of " Science Gossip," for electros of the full-length figures of seals. These were received through Dr. Coues, who also furnished the full-length views of Eumetopias stelleri and CaUorhinus ursinus. Mr. Allen desires me to express, in this connection, acknowl- edgments of his indebtedness to Prof. Spencer F. Baird, Secre- tary of the Smithsonian Institution, and to Prof. Alexander Agassiz, Director of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, for the liberality with which they have placed at his service the rich material relating to this group of animals contained in the museums respectively under their charge ; to Prof. Henry A. Ward, of Rochester, N. Y., for the use of much valuable material relating to the Walruses that he would not otherwise have seen ; and to Captain Charles Bryant, late special agent of the United States Treasury Department, for his report, kindly prepared at the author's request, for the present work. Also to Dr. Elliott Cones, Secretary of the Survey, for the use of many of the cuts, for valuable suggestions during the prepa- tion and printing of the monograph, and revision of the proof- sheets.

F. V. HAYDEN,

United States Geologist.

LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.

CAMBRIDGE, MASS.,

May 25, 1880.

SIR : I have the honor to transmit herewith for approval and for publication the " History of North American Pinnipeds," being a monograph of the Walruses, Sea-Lions, Sea-Bears, and Seals of North America.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. A. ALLEN. F. V. HAYDEN,

Washington, D. C.

vn

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

Page. Title ............................................................................ I

Prefatory note ................................................................... HI

Letter of transmittal ............................................................. V

Table of contents ............................................................ VH

List of illustrations ................... ...................

Characters of the PINNIPEDI^

Family ODOB^NID^— Walruses

Synonymy ................... ...................

General observations and characters of the group Genera

Synopsis of the genera Genus OcoBjENUs

Synonymy and history ............ •.

Species ...

ODOB^NUS KOSMARUS Atlantic "Walrus

Synonymy and bibliographical references

External characters

Sexual differences

Individual variations and variations dependent upon age

Measurements of skulls

Dentition

Fossil remains ____ ................................. ........... .

Geographical distribution, present and past Ooast of North America Coast of Europe Nomenclature Etymology Literature

General history Figures

Habits and the chase Products Food Functions of the tusks ......................................... 137-138

Enemies ......................................................... 138-139

Domestication ................................................... 140-147

ODOB.ENUS OBESUS Pacific "Walrus ................................. 147-186

Synonymy and bibliographical references ....................... 147

External characters and skeleton ................................ 147-155

Measurements of skeleton .................................. 14iM5U

Measurements of skulls ..................................... 155

Differential characters ........... . ............................... 156-170

Nomenclature ................................................... 170-171

General history .................................................. 171-172

Figures .......................................................... 172-174

Geographical distribution ........................................ 174-178

Habits, food, commercial products, and the chase ............... 178-186

Family OTARIID^— Eared Seals .......................................... 187-411

Synonymy and characters of the group .................................

Technical history ........................................................ 188-207

Higher groups ....................................................... 188-190

Genera .............................................................. 190-193

Species .............................................................. 193-207

IX

1

fr-186 5

5-12

12-14

14

14

14-17

17-23

23-147

23-26

26-38

38-43

43-45

46

47-57 57-65 65-79 65-71 71-79 80

80-82

82-107

82-92

92-107

107-133

133-134

134-137

X TABLE OF CONTENTS.

Page.

Characters of the PINNIBEDIA Continued. Family^OTAmrD^— Eared Seals.

Synopsis of the genera and species 208-213

Mythical and undeterminable species 214-216

Geographical distribution 216

Fossil Otaries 217-221

Milk dentition 221-224

Irregularities of dentition 224

Position of the last upper permanent molar 225

General observations 225-227

Habits 227

Products 228

Destruction of Fur Seals for their peltries : 229-231

Genus EUMETOPIAS 231

EUMETOPIAS STELLERI— Steller's Sea-Lion 232-274

Synonymy and bibliographical references 232

External characters 232-236

External measurements 236

Skull 237-238

Measurements of skulls 238

Teeth 239

Skeleton 240-244

Measurements of skeleton 242-244

Sexual, adolescent, and individual variation 244

Geographical variation 244

Comparison with allied species 244-247

Measurements of skulls of OTARIA JUBATA 247

Geographical distribution 248

General history and nomenclature 248-254

Habits ' 254-274

Genus ZALOPHUS 275

ZALOPHUS CALIFOHXIANTS Califomian Sea- Lion 276-312

Synonymy and bibliographical references 27C

External cliura.-trrs 276-278

Young 278

Pelage 278

Size 278-283

External measurements 279-280

Measurements of skeleton of female 281-283

Skull 283-285

Measurements of skulls 285

Dentition ... 286

Sexual differences 287

Variation with age 287-289

Comparison with allied species 289

Geographical distribution 289-291

General history and nomenclature 291-296

Habits 296-312

Genus C ALLORHINUS 312-410

CALLORHINUS URSINUS Northern Fur Seal 313

Synonymy and bibliographical references 313-314

External characters 314

Color 314

Pelage 315

Size 316-319

External measurements 319

Ears 320

Fore limbs 320

Hind limbs.. 320

TABLE OF CONTENTS. XI

1 * ' t ' rt

Characters of the PINMPEDIA Continued. Family OTAKIID2E— Eared Seals. Genus CALLOKHLXUS.

CALLOBHINUS URSINUS— Northern Fur Seal.

Skull 320-323

Measurements of skulls 323

Teeth 324

Skeleton 324-326

Measurements of skeleton 325

Sexual differences 325-327

Differences resulting from age 327

Individual variation 328

Comparison with allied species 329-331

Measurements of skulls of ARCTOCEPHALUS AUSTRALIS 331

Geographical distribution and migration 332-335

General history and nomenclature 335-339

Figures 339-341

Habits 341-371

The chase 371-U7S

Mode of capture 372-378

History and prospects of the Fur Seal business at the Prybilov

Islands 378-381

Enemies of the Fur Seals 381

History of the Fur Seal Fishery at the Prybilov Islands, Alaska,

from 1869 to 1877, by CHAKLES BRYANT 382-411

Preliminary ami general observations 382-388

Recent changes in the habits and relative numbers of the

different classes of Seals 388-398

Cause of the changes in the habits of the Seals, &c 398-102

Albinos and sexually abnormal individuals 403

Description of the young ; variation in color with age, &c. . . . 403

Molting 404

Sexual organs, &c 405

Power of suspending respiration 406

Natural enemies 406

Effect of climatic influences 407

Number of Seals required for the subsistence of the natives . . 409

Winter resorts and habits of the Seals 410

Family PHOCID^— Earless Seals 412-756

Characters of the group 412

Technical history 412-460

Higher groups 412—114

Genera 414-421

Species 421-460

Classification 460-467

Synopsis of sub-families and genera 461-463

Synonymatiolist of the species 463-467

Geographical distribution 467—469

Fossil remains 469-481

North America 469-476

Europe 476-481

Milk dentition 481-484

General habits and instincts 484-486

Food 486

Enemies 487

Migrations 487-491

Locomotion on land 491^96

Seal hunting 496-546

XII TABLE OF CONTENTS.

Page.

Characters of the PINNIPEDIA Continued. Family PHOCID^— Earless Seals.

Sealing districts 496-522

"West Greenland 497

Newfoundland 497-199

Jan Mayen or "Greenland" Seas 499-511

Nova Zembla and Kara Sea 511

White Sea 511-513

Caspian Sea 513-517

North Pacific 517

South Pacific and Antarctic Seas 517-522

Methods of capture, &c 522

Shore hunting 522-530

. Esquimaux methods 522

By means of nets 523-528

The seal-hox 528

The seal-hook 529

. The " Skrackta" 529

Ice hunting 530

In the Gulf of Bothnia 530-534

Off the coast of Newfoundland 534-540

In the Jan Mayen Seas 540-542

Dangers and uncertainties of ice hunting 543-545

Species hunted 545

Abundance of Seals at particular localities 546

Products .... 546-549

Preparation of the products 549-551

"Wasteful destruction of Seals 551-553

Decrease from injudicious hunting 553

Seals and Seal hunting in the olden time in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. 553-557

Sab-family PHOCINJE 557

Genus PHOCA . . 557-559

PHOCA VITULINA— Harbor Seal 559-507

Synonymy and bibliographical references 559-562

External characters . 562-565

Distinctive characters 565-571

Individual and sexual variation 571-573

Measurements of the skulls 574

General history and nomenclature 575-584

Geographical distribution 584-588

Habits 588-597

PHOCA (PU6A) FCETIDA— Ringed Seal 597-629

Synonymy and bibliographical references 597-600

External characters . . 600-603

Individual variation and variations dependent upon sex and age. 603-605

Measurements of the skull 606

Differential characters 607-614

Phoca (Pusa) caspica 609-610

Phoca (Pusa) sibirica 612-613

Geographical distribution 614-616

General history and nomenclature 616-619

Habits 619-629

PHOCA (PAGOPHILUS) GHCENLANDICA Harp Seal 630-654

Synonymy and bibliographical references 630-632

External characters 632-637

Sexual and individual variation and variations dependent upon

age 637

Measurements of the skull 638

General history and nomenclature 639

TABLE OF CONTENTS. XIII

Page. Characters of the PINNIPEUIA Continued.

Family PHOCID^. Sub-family PHOCIN.ZE. Genus PHOCA.

PHOCA (PAGOPHILUS) GRCENLANDICA Harp SeaL

Geographical distribution 640

Migrations and breeding stations 641-647

Habits 647-051

Enemies 651

Food 652

Hunting and products 652-654

Genus ERIGNATHUS 654

ERIGNATHUS BAKBATUS— Bearded Seal 655-675

Synonymy and bibliographical references 655-657

External characters , 657

Skull and skeleton 658-661

Measurements of the skeleton 660

Measurements of the skull 661

General history and nomenclature 662-666

Geographical distribution 666-670

Habits, products, and hunting 670-675

Genus HISTRIOP.HOCA 675-676

HISTRIOPHOCA FASCIATA— Bibbon Seal 676-682

Synonymy and bibliographical'references 676

External characters 670-678

Size 678

General history 678-681

Geographical distribution 681-682

Habits 682

Genus HAUICHCERUS 682-689

General history and discussion of the ' ' Genus PUSA " of Scopoli . . 683-689

HALICHCEEUS GRYPUS— Gray Seal 689-706

Synonymy and bibliographical references 689-690

External characters 690-693

Measurements of skulls 694

Geographical distribution 695-696

General history and nomenclature 696-698

Habits 699-706

Genus MONACHUS 707-708

MONACHUS TROPICALIS "West Indian Seal 708-723

Characters 708

Dampier's account 708-710

Hill's and Gosse's accounts, 1843,1851 710-715

Gray's accounts, 1849, 1874 175-718

Gill on the "West Indian Seals, 1866 718

Analysis and discussion of the foregoing 718-720

Affinities of the Jamaican or Pedro Seal 720-721

Geographical distribution 721-723

Sub-family CYSTOPHOKHIN2E 723

Genus CYSTOPHORA 723

CYSTOPHORA CRISTATA— Hooded Seal 724-742

Synonymy and bibliographical references 724-726

External characters 726-729

Skeleton and skull 730-733

Measurements of skulls 732

Measurements of the skeleton 733

Geographical distribution and migrations 733-737

General history arid nomenclature 738-740

Habits 740-741

Hunting and products . . : 741-742

XIV TABLE OF CONTENTS. ^

Page.

Characters of the PINNIPEDIA Continued. Family PHOCID^.

Sub-family— CYSTOPHORHIN.E.

Genus MACRORHINUS

MACRORHINUS ANGUSTIROSTRIS Californian Sea Elephant 743

Bibliographical references 743

External characters 743-746

Skull 746-749

Measurements of skulls 748

Measurements of the skeleton of Macrorhinus leoninus 749

Comparison with the Southern Sea Elephant 749-751

Geographical distribution 751-752

General history 752-753

Habits 753-755

Chase and products 755-756

APPENDIX.

A. Material examined 757-764

Family ODOB^ENID^; 757-758

Odobaenus rosmaraa 758

Odobsenns obesus

Family OTARIIU-S: 758-760

Eumetopias stelleri 758

Zalophus californianus

Callorhinus nrsinus 760

Family PHOCID.E 761-764

Phoca vitulina 761

Phoca fcetida 762

Phoca groenlandica

Erignathus barbatus 763

Histriophoca fasciata

Halichoerus grypus . . .

Cystophora cristata

Macrorhinus angustirostris '

B. Additions and Corrections 765-774

Family ODOB.ENID.E 765-769

Odobcenus rosmarus Atlantic Walrus 765-768

Additional references 765

Size a iid external appearance

Geographical distribution 766-767

Nova Zembla 766

Franz-Josef Land 766

Abundance in Wolstenholme Sound 766

Spitzbergen, &c 766

Iceland 766

Supposed presence of "Walruses in the Antarctic Seas 766

The "Walrus a formidable antagonist

Curiosity and fearlessness of the "Walrus 767

Locomotion ; use of tlie tusks in climbing 767

Figures of the "Walrus 768

Odobcenus obesus Pacific "Walrua 768

Distribution

Family OTARIID.E 769-774

Otaries at the Galapagos Islands

Fossil Otaries 770

Capture of Sea Lions for menageries 770

Zalophus californianus— California Sea Lion 771

Period of gestation

Callorhinus ursinus 772

Breeding off the coast of "Washington Territory

Family PHOCID^:

Extinct species

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

Fig. 1, p. 41. Odobcenus rosmarus, skull of female in profile and lower jaw from above.

Fig. 2, p. 42. Odobacenus rosmarus, skull of female from above.

Fig. 3, p. 43. Odobcenus rosmarus, skull of female from below.

Fig. 4, p. 93. Olaus Magnus's " Rosinarus seu Moreus Norvegicus."

Fig. 5, p. 93. Olaus Magnus's "Porous Monstrosus Oceani Germanic!."

Fig. 6, p. 94. Gesner's "Rosmarus."

Fig. 7, p. 94. Gesner's "Vacca marina" (Addenda to Icones Animal).

Fig. 8, p. 94. Gesner's "Rosmarus" (Icones Animal., 1560).

Fig. 9, p. 95. De Veer's "Sea Horse," 1609.

Fig. 10, p. 96. Hessel Gerard's ""Walruss," 1613.

Fig. 11, p. 100. Martin's " "Wall-ross, " 1765.

Fig. 12, p. 101. Buffon's " Le Morse," 1765.

Fig. 13, p. 153. Odobcenus obesus, three views of head.

Fig. 14, p. 156. Odobacenus obesus, skull in profile.

Fig. 15, p. 157. Odobcenus rosmarus, skull in profile.

Fig. 10, p. 158. Odobcenus rosmarus, skull from front.

Fig. 17, p. 158. Odobcenus obesus, skull from front.

Fig. 18, p. 159. Odobcenus rosmarus, occipital view of skull.

Fig. 19, p. 159. Odobcenus obesus, occipital view of skull.

Fig. 20, p. 160. Odabcenus rosmarus, skull from above.

Fig. 21, p. 161. Odobcenus obesus, skull from above.

Fig. 22, p. 162. Odobcenus obesus, young skull from above.

Fig. 23, p. 162. Odobcenus rosmarus, young skull from above.

Fig. 24, p. 163. Odobcenus obesu-s, young skull from front.

Fig. 25, p. 163. Odobcenus rosmarus, young skull from front.

ig. 26, p. 164. Odobcenus rosmarus, skull from below.

Fig. 27, p. 165. Odobcenus ubesus, skull from below.

Fig. 28, p. 166. Odobcenus rosmarus, lower jaw from above.

Fig. 29, p. 166. Odobcenus obesus, lower jaw from above.

Fig. 30, p. 167. Odobcenus rosmarus, lower jaw from side.

Fig. 31, p. 167. Odobcenus obesus, lower jaw from side.

Fig. 32, p. 168. Odobcenus rosmarus, lower jaw of young from above.

Fig. 33, p. 168. Odobcenus obesus, lower jaw of young from above.

Fig. 34, p. 169. Odobcenus rosmarus, lower jaw of young from side.

Fig. 35, p. 169. Odobcenus obesus, lower jaw of young from side.

Fig. 36, p. 173. Odobcenus obesus, Cook's figure of the animal.

Fig. 37, p. 259. Eumetopias stelleri, figures of animal

Fig. 38, p. 317. Callorhinus ursinus, figures of animal. *

Fig. 39, p. 321. Callorhinus ursinus, skull of female in profile.

Fig. 40, p. 321. Callorhinus ursinus, skull of female from above.

Fig. 41, p 322. Callorhinus ursinus, skull of female lower jaw.

Fig. 42. p. 322. Callorhinus ursinus, skull of female from below.

Fig. 43, p. 563. Phoca vitulina, animal.

Fig. 44, p. 580. " Halichcerus antircticus," Peale, skull in profile.

Fig. 45, p. 580. " Halichcerus antarcticus," Peale, skull from above.

Fig. 46, p. 581. " Halichcerus antarcticus, " Peale, skull from below.

Fig. 47, p. 582. "Halichcerus antarcticus," Peale, lower jaw.

Fig. 48, p. 583. " Halicyon richardsi," Gray, skull in profile.

Fig. 49, p. 601. Phoca fcetida, animal.

XV

XVI LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

Fig. 50, p. 633. Phoca groelandica, animal.

Fig. 51, p. 691. Halichcerns grypus, animal.

Fig. 52, p. 727. Oystophora cristata, animal.

Fig. 53, p. 728. Cystophora cristata, skull in profile.

Fig. 54, p. 729. Oystophora cristata, skull from above.

Fig. 55, p. 730. Oystophora cristata, skull from below.

Fig. 56, p. 731. Oystophora cristata, lower jaw.

Fig. 57, p. 744. Macrorhinus angustirostris, skull in profile.

Fig. 58, p. 745. Macrorhinus angustirostris, skull from above.

Fig. 59, p. 746. Macrorhinus angustirostris, skull from below.

Fig. 60, p. 747. Macrorhinus angustirostris, lower jaw.

HISTORY OF THE NORTH AMERICAN

PINNIPEDS.

The Pinnipeds, or Pitmipedia, embracing the Seals and Wal- ruses, are commonly recognized by recent systematic writers as constituting a suborder of the order Fercv, or Carnivorous Mammals. They are, in short, true Carnivora, modified for an aquatic existence, and have consequently been sometimes termed liAm/pMbiou8 Carnivora." Their whole form is modified for life in the water, which element is their true home. Here they display extreme activity, but on land their movements are confined and labored. They consequently rarely leave the water, and generally only for short periods, and are never found to move voluntarily more than a few yards from the shore. Like the other marine Mammalia, the Cetacea and Sirenia (Whales, Dolphins, Porpoises, Manatees, etc.), their bodies are more or less fish-bike in general form, and their limbs are transformed into swimming organs. As their name implies, they are fin- footed. Generally speaking, the body may be compared to two cones joined basally. Unlike the other marine mammals, the Pinnipeds are all well clothed with hair, while several of them have, underneath the exterior coarser hair, a thick, soft, silky under-fur. In contrasting them with the ordinary or terrestrial mammals, we note that the body is only exceptionally raised, and the limbs are confined within the common integument to beyond the knees and elbows, and are hence to only a slight degree serviceable for terrestrial locomotion. The first digit of the manus is generally lengthened and enlarged, as are both the outer digits of the pes. As compared with other Ferce, they present, in osteological characters, many obvious points of difference, especially in relation to the structure of the skull, limbs, and pelvis, and in dentition. The skull is distinctively characterized by great compression or constriction of the inter- orbital portion, the large size of the orbital fossa?, in the lachry- mal bone being imperforate (without a lachrymal canal) and contained within the orbit, and in the presence (generally) of Misc. Pub. No. 12 1 1

2 CHARACTERS OF PINNIPEDIA.

considerable vacuities between the palatine and frontal bones and the tympanic and exoccipital bones. The deciduous den- tition is rudimentary, never to any great extent functional, and frequently does not persist beyond the fostal life of the animal. In the permanent dentition, the canines are greatly developed, sometimes enormously so; the lower incisors are never more than four in number, and sometimes only two ; the upper incisors usually number six, but sometimes only four, or even two ; the grinding teeth (premolars and molars) are generally simple in structure, and usually differ from each other merely in respect to size, or the number of roots by which they are inserted. The pelvis differs from that of the terrestrial Ferce in the shortness of the iliac portion and the eversion of its anterior border ; the ischiac bones barely meet for a short distance in the male, and are usually widely separated in the female, the pelvic arch thus remaining in the latter permanently open ventrally.

The existing Pinnipeds constitute three very distinct minor groups or families, differing quite widely from each other in important characters : these are the "Walruses, or Odobcenidce, the Eared Seals, or Otariidce, and the Earless Seals, or Phocidce. The first two are far more nearly allied than are either of these with the third, so that the Odobccnidcc and Otariidw may be together contrasted with the Plwcidw. The last named is the lowest or most generalized group, while the others appear to stand on nearly the same plane, and about equally remote from the Pho- cidcv. The Walruses are really little more than thick, clumsy, obese forms of the Otariau type, with the canines enormously developed, and the whole skull correlatively modified. The limb-structure, the mode of life, and the whole economy are essentially the same in the two groups, and, aside from the cran- ial modifications presented by the Odobccn idw: which are obvi- ously related to the development of the canines as huge tusks, the Walruses are merely elephantine Otariids, the absence or presence of an external ear being in reality a feature of minor importance.

The characters of the suborder and its three families may be more formally stated as follows : *

* The characters here given are in part those collated by Dr. Theodore N. Gill in 1873 ("Arrangement of the Families of the Mammals." Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, No. 230, pp. 56, 68, 69), by whom the distinctive features of these groups were first formulated. They have, however, been carefully verified and further elaborated by the present writer, while the families are here quite differently associated.

CHARACTERS OF PINNIPEDIA. D

Limbs pinniform, or modified into swimming organs, and enclosed to or beyond the elbows and knees within the common integument. Digits of the mauus decreasing in length and size from the first to the fifth ; of those of the pes, the first and fifth largest and longest, the three middle ones shorter and subequal. Pelvis with the iliac portion very short, and the anterior border much everted; ischia barely meeting by a short symphysis (never anchylosed) and in the female usually widely separated. Skull generally greatly compressed interorbitally ; facial portion usually short and rather broad, and the brain-case abruptly ex- panded. Lachrymal bone imperforate and joined to the maxil- lary, enclosed wholly within the orbit. Palatines usually sepa- rated by a vacuity, often of considerable size, from the frontals. Tympanic bones separated also by a vacuity from the exoccipit- als. Dentition simple, generally unspecialized, the molars all similar in structure. Deciduous dentition rudimentary, never truly functional, and generally not persistent beyond the foetal stage of the animal. Permanent incisors usually £ or -J> some- times -f- (Cysiopliora and Macrorliinns), or even f (Odoba'ints');

canines 1 ; molars * £, £, or jj- PINNIPEDIA.

A. Hind legs capable of being turned forward and used in terrestrial loco- motion. Neck lengthened (especially in family II). Skull with the mastoid processes large and salient (especially in the males), and with distinct alisphcnoid canals. Anterior feet nearly as large as the posterior, their digits rapidly decreasing in length from the first to the fifth, without distinct claws, and with a broad cartilaginous border extending beyond the digits. Hind feet suceptible of great expansion, the three middle digits only with claws, and all the digits terminating in long, narrow, car- tilaginous flaps, united basally. Femur with the trochanter minor well developed GRESSIGRADA.

I. Without external ears. Form thick and heavy. Anterior por-

tion of the skull greatly swollen, giving support to the enor- mously developed canines, which form long, protruding tusks. Incisors of deciduous (fo3tal) dentition § ; of permanent denti- tion §. No postorbital processes, and the surface of the mastoid processes continuous with the auditory bulls; Odobcenidce.

II. With small external ears. Form slender and elongated. Ante- rior portion of the skull not unusually swollen, and the canines not highly specialized. Incisors of deciduous dentition £ , only the outer on either side cutting the gum ; of permanent denti- tion |, the two central pairs of the upper with a transverse groove. Postorbital processes strongly developed. Surface of the mastoid processes not continuous with the auditory bullai Otariidce.

B. Hind legs not capable of being turned forward, and not serviceable for terrestrial locomotion. Neck short. Skull with the mastoid

* In view of the uncertainty respecting the proper notation of the grind- ing teeth, they will in the present work be designated simply as molars, with no attempt at distinguishing "premolars" from "molars."

4 CHARACTERS OF PINNIPEDIA.

processes swollen, but not salient, and without distinct alisphe- noid canals. Anterior limbs smaller than the posterior, the first digit little, if any, longer than the next succeeding ones, all armed with strong claws, which are terminal. Hind feet ca- pable of moderate expansion, short ; digits (usually) all armed with strong claws, and without terminal cartilaginous flaps. Femur with no trace of the trochanter minor.. .REPTIGRADA.* III. Without external ears. Postorbital processes wanting, or very small. Incisors variable (f, f , or f ). Deciduous dentition not persistent beyond foetal life .. PhotidcB.

The Pinnipeds present a high degree of cerebral develop- ment, and are easily domesticated under favorable conditions. They manifest strong social and parental affection, and defend their young with great persistency and courage. They are car- nivorous (almost without exception), subsisting upon fishes, mollusks, and crustaceans, of which they consume enormous quantities. The Walruses and Eared Seals are polygamous, and the males greatly exceed the females in size. The ordinary or Earless Seals are commonly supposed to be monogamous, and there is generally little difference in the size of the sexes. The Walruses and Eared Seals usually resort in large numbers to certain favorite breeding grounds, and during the season of re- production leave the water, and pass a considerable period upon land. The Earless Seals, on the other hand, with the exception of the Sea Elephants, do not so uniformly resort to particular breeding grounds on land, and leave the water only for very short intervals. They usually bring forth their young on the ice, most of the species being confined to the colder latitudes. Only one of the various species of the Pinnipedia appears to be strictly tropical, and very few of them range into tropical waters. As a group, the Pinnipeds are distinctively character- istic of the Arctic, Antarctic, and Temperate portions of the globe, several of the genera being strictly Arctic or Subarctic in their distribution. The Walruses are at present confined mainly within the Arctic Circle, and have no representatives south of the colder portions of the Northern Hemisphere. The OtariidcB and PJiocidce, on the other hand, are abundantly represented on both sides of the equator, as will be noticed more in detail later.

* For the suggestion of the terms Grcssigrada and Eeptigrada I am indebted to my friend Dr. Elliott Coues.

FAMILY

Walruses.

" Trichetidce, GRAY, London Med. Repos., 1821, 303" (family). Apud Gray. Trichechidce, GRAT, Ann. of Philos., 1825, 340; Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 3d

ser., xviii, 1866, 229; Hid., 4th ser., iv, 1869, 268; Suppl. Cat. Seals

and Whales, 1871, 5 (family). Trichecina, GRAY, London's Mag. Nat. Hist., i, 1837, 538; "Zool. Erebus and

Terror, 3 " (subfamily). In part only, or exclusive of Halich&rus. TrichecUna, GRAY, Cat. Mam. Brit. Mus., pt. ii, 1850, 29; Cat. Seals and

Whales, 1866, 33 (subfamily). In part only = Trichecina Gray, 1837. " TrichecMda; sen Campodontia, BROOKES, Cat. Anat. and Zool. Mus. 1828, 37." Trich-eclwidea, GIEBEL, Fauna der Vorwelt, i, 1847, 221: Saugeth., 1855, 127

(family).

Ti-ichecina, TURNER, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1848, 85, 88 (subfamily). Rosmarida;, GILL, Proc. Essex Institute, v, 1866, 7, 11 ; Families of Mam.,

1872, 27, 69, 70 ( = " Tricliecliidos Brookes, Gervais").— ALLEN, Bull.

Mus. Comp. Zool., ii, 1870, 21.

Eosmaroidea, GILL, Fain. Mam., 1872,70 ("superfainily" = Bosmaridce Gill). Broca, LATREILLE, Fani. Reg. Auim., 1825, 51 (family). Les Morses, F. CUVIER, Dents cles Mam., 1825, 233; Diet, Sci. Nat., lix, 1829,

465 (family).

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS.

Among the distinctive features of the Odobccnidce are the enormous development of the upper canines, and the consequent great enlargement of the anterior portion of the skull for their reception and support, the early loss of all the incisors except the outer pair of the upper jaw, the caducous character of the posterior molars, and the molariforui lower canines. The Wal- ruses share with the Eared Seals the ability to turn the hind feet forward, and consequently have considerable power of loco- motion on laud. This is further aided by a greater freedom of movement of the fore feet than is possessed by the Earless Seals. The Walruses differ from the Eared Seals by their much thicker bodies, shorter necks, and longer caudal vertebrae, the dorsal and lumbar vertebrae remaining of proportionately the same length. In consequence of their obesity, the ribs and the proximal segments of the limbs are longer in the Walruses than in the Eared Seals, while the distal segments of the limbs are relatively shorter. The scapula is long and narrow, instead of short and broad, as in the Otariidw, and its crest is placed

5

6 FAMILY ODOB^NHXE.

more anteriorly. Accordingly, in respect to general form, we have slenderness of both body and limbs in the one contrasted with great thickness of body, and distally a disproportionate reduction of the extremities in the other. The most striking- differences, however, exist in the cranial characters, resulting from the great development of the upper canines in the Wal- ruses, and the consequent modifications of the facial portion of the skull. In the Otariidce, the general contour of the skull is strongly Ursine ; in the Odobcenidce, it is unique, owing to its great expansion anteriorly. In respect to other cranial features, the Walruses differ from the Eared Seals in having no post-orb- ital processes, and in the mastoid processes being not separated from the auditory bullae. The teeth are all single-rooted, and have in the permanent dentition no distinct crowns.

On comparing the Odobccnidw with the Phocida', the differ- ences in general structure are found to be far greater than ob- tain between the Walruses and Eared Seals, especially in regard to the himl extremities ; these in the Phocida' being directed backward, and useless as organs of terrestrial locomotion. Hence, in so far as the Odobanida' and Otariidcc agree in liinb- aud skull-structure, they both similarly depart from the Phocine type. As already indicated in the synopsis of the suborder Pin- nipcdia, the Phocida' differ far more from either the Odobcenidw and Ota>-iida> than do these latter from each other. This differ- ence is especially emphasized in the skull ; for while the Odo- bwnida' and Otariida' agree in all important cranial characters, aside from the special features correlated with the immense enlargement of the upper canines in the former, they widely differ from the Phocida'. This is especially seen in the absence in the latter of an alisphenoid canal, in the greatly swollen audi- tory bulla?, the position of the carotid foramen, and the non- salient character of the mastoid processes.

The few points in which the Walruses differ in myology from other Pinnipeds, Dr. Murie states to be "the presence of a co- raco-brachialis, a flexor brevis nianus, a pronator quadratus, an opponens pollicis, and a palmaris brevis," in the possession of which it differs both from Otaria and Phoca, but that in other respects they " muscularly present general agreement." " Com- pared with the Seals \Plioca £] there are two extra peronei and a flexor brevis hallucis."1 " Though deficient in concha, the auri- cular muscles are remarkably large."*

:r Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, p. 545.

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 7

"Considering the very different attitudes assumed by the Tri- cJiecMdcc and Otarudce as compared with the Pliocidce? he further adds, " it is remarkable how very little deviation follows in the muscular development. The two former, as might be antici- pated, present a general agreement, especially iu the mode of implantation of the muscles of the hind leg, and in this respect recede from the Seal, yet but slightly." *

In respect to the position and character of the viscera, a gen- eral agreement has beeen noted with those of the other Pinni- peds, and they present nothing that calls for special notice in the present connection. As Dr. Murie has stated, there is little appreciable difference exhibited throughout the Pinnipeds in the construction of the alimentary canal. " It is simply that of a Carnivore, with, however, a moderate-sized coecum. The great glandular superficies and correlated large lymphatics point to means of speedy and frequent digestion ; and in the Walrus these apparatus are extraordinarily developed."!

In accordance with the characters already given (p. 3), if any subdivision of the Pinnipeds into groups of higher rank than families is to be made, it seems evident that the Odobcenidce and Otariida} are to be collectively contrasted with the Phocidcc; in other words, that to unite the Otariidce and PliocidcK as a group of co-ordinate rank with the Odobcenidw is to lose sight of the wide differences that separate the two first-named fami- lies, as well as of the many important features shared in com- mon by the Odolcenidcc- and Otariidce, by which both are trench- antly separated from the Pliocidcc.

Although the Walruses are now very generally recognized as constituting a natural family of the Pinnipeds, ranking co-ordi- nately with the Eared Seals on the one hand and with the Earless Seals on the other, the affinities of few groups have been more diversely interpreted. As early as the thirteenth century, the author of the " Speculum Regale",— one of the earliest works re- lating to natural history, in which the Walrus is mentioned,— stated distinctly that the Walrus was an animal closely related to the Seals ; and we find that nearly all natural-history writers prior to the middle of the eighteenth century who referred to the Walruses, gave them the same association. It was the technical systematists of the last half of the eighteenth century who broke up this natural juxtaposition, and variously grouped

* Trans. Zoo!. Soc. Loud., vol. vii, 1872, p. 459. t Trans. Zoo'l. Soc. Lornl., vol. vii, 1872, p. 4H1.

FAMILY ODOB^ENHXE.

them with forms with which they had no relationship. In the infancy of science, nothing was perhaps more natural than that animals should be classified in accordance with their mode of life, their habitatr or their external form, and we are hence not surprised to find that Eondelet, Gesner, Aldrovandus, Jonstou, and other pre-Linnsean writers, arranged the Pinnipeds, as well as the Sirenians and Cetaceans, with the fishes, or that, other early writers should term all four-footed creatures " Quadru- peds," and divide them into "Land Quadrupeds" and "Quadru- peds of the Sea." While all marine animals were by some early writers classified as "fishes,"* the Pinnipeds were much sooner 'disassociated from the true fishes than were the Cetaceans and Sirenians, the mammalian affinities of which were not at first recognized by even the great Linne himself, who, as late as the tenth edition of his " Systema Xatune " (1758), still left them in the class u PiscesS"1

In view of the several excellent descriptions and very credit- able figures of the Atlantic Walrus that appeared as early as the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries (a detailed account of which will be given later), it is surprising that the early sys- tematic writers should display such complete ignorance of some of the most obvious external characters of this animal, as was notably the case with Linne, Klein, Brisson, Erxleben, and Gmeliu, who strangely associated the